The Electric Universe Gallery
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In the solar core of about 15 MK, the electrons (small spheres with zig-zag velocity arrows) have an average thermal velocity of 26 000 km/s (equation 1). The protons (points) are much slower. The thermal electron-velocity is only 510 km/s on the surface according to the Boltzmann-law. The result is that the hot particles and the strong photons continually push out the electrons from the core. The surfaced electrons hardly find a way back. The HRD-stars are similar to an atom: their small but heavy core is made positive (++) by the lost electrons and the big body is made negative by the electrons which wander to the surface, see big “minus” signs. (Particles are not shown between core and surface.)

The book: "The Electric Universe" by Dr. László Körtvélyessy

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