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Solar Loops

published: 1999 March 13-17 in Jordan, during the 8. UN/ESA workshop

1 Summary

For many decades, solar loops were seen as dynamo-made and empty magnetic flux tubes. These should be lifted from the depth by buoyancy forces and should be somehow filled with hot plasma. This model was created to explain the filament-form, the deep origin and the ions of the solar loops. But new observations with SOHO and TRACE show many new characteristics which must be explained in a new way. The electric model takes into account the much smaller mass of the electron related to the mass of the positive ions. This mass relation causes the solar thermoelement-effect and the separation of the negative electric charge from the positive one via solar temperature difference of 15 MK. This electric model explains not only the deep origin, the form and the ions of these beautiful filaments but also the matter transport in them, their missing sections and their missing infrared emission. This very new model has no corona problem and does not need any "dynamo". This mysterious solar dynamo could not be realized in the Na-model of Karlsruhe (Wöhl 1998). This report physically explains not only the solar loops but also all other filaments of the Universe.

Fig. 1 shows a beautiful group of the so called post flare loops in the hydrogen alpha light of 656.3 nm. A small section of the solar surface is covered with white round areas i.e. areas which have a very high emission in this wavelength. These active areas seem to emit the loops vertically. The magnetic explanation is simple: every loop is only a short section of a much longer magnetic filament. These are made in the deeper layer of the Sun. An alleged dynamo produce them during the solar minimum and buoyancy forces elevate them when they are strong enough, during the solar maximum. These magnetic tubes are filled with hot plasma.Fig.1 Loops in hydrogen alpha light (see also the report of J.C. Noens in this workshop)

2 Magnetic explanation of the solar loops

After a flare, such loops appear on the surface of the Sun. They start almost vertically from very active areas which are seen in white colour. Note that these areas are not similar to surfacing tubes, are not parallel to each other and that the loops have a much lower emission than the white areas. This picture is taken from a movie of the Big Bear Observatory which suggests via flying clouds and knots that matter is flowing along the path of these loops . Three such clouds are actually flying near to the top of these loops. All of these three clouds have a diameter at least double the normal diameter of these loops. This relation does not support the supposition that some dynamo-made magnetic tubes somehow transport matter because these clouds do not fit into these thin "magnetic tubes". Two loops transport matter in a horizontal plane to the surface. This plane cannot be explained by buoyancy forces. The fact is very important (Wöhl 1997, Matthei 1999) that many loops have missing sections in about the same volume along their left side. See magnetic and electric explanation in text.

The old, magnetic model supposed that the Sun contains a dynamo. Nobody knew exactly where this dynamo (Vial 1994) is, how it functions, what its electric circuit is (Wöhl 1997).

The alleged drive of the dynamo is the differential rotation. How does this differential rotation react to the working of this dynamo (Vial 1994)? How can this dynamo produce magnetic tubes (Fig. 2) ? If this dynamo existed and produced magnetic fields, how would these almost stable fields be transformed to high temperatures in the loops (Lang 1995, 1999) ?

The movie of such loops clearly suggests matter motion via small clouds or knots which are emitted irregularly by the active areas and which fly along the loops and land again after a flight in a non-active (dark) area. Two loops show such landing on the left side.

If we want to explain this hydrogen alpha emission by hot matter of 20 000 K due to some "magnetic energy of the emerged magnetic tubes", then the loops cannot heat the white areas because these areas are brighter ("hotter") than the loops. Moreover, no observation reveals a decreasing magnetic energy which would balance the power of a supposed constant electromagnetic emission of the "hot" loops: the loops do not become thinner or shorter. No published calculation supports this supposed process. But, easily estimated emission of these loops would be comparable to that of the whole Sun: this is naturally impossible ! Moreover, this theoretical high thermal emission is totally missing in the Sun-pictures which were taken in the visible and infrared wavelengths. This theoretically huge radiation could not be found in the high precision ACRIM -records of 3 satellites. This huge emission is also absolutely impossible from the magnetic energy of the loops of about 250 J/m³ (Körtvélyessy 1998). In any case a stable magnetic field cannot give motion-energy to charged particles due to the Lorenz-force.

Fig. 2 The alleged result of the alleged solar dynamo: a deep and wounded magnetic tube. Only a short section of it - i.e. 28 million km (=0.1%) - can be shown in this sketch, its whole length does not fit into the dynamo, not even into the whole Sun. This model well explains how big bipolar sunspots of a diameter of about 30 000 km and their east-west-position come into existence - see two omega-forms which are somehow elevated above the photosphere. (The photosphere is shown cut and unscaled thick for better demonstration.) The original dynamo-model does not contain the here sketched "hoops" which should bind together the normally diverging parallel magnetic fields

After decades of use of this dynamo-model, more than 10 other solar filaments of various diameters, lengths and "temperatures" were discovered, but no new model. But, in addition, fine polar filaments, filaments of mass ejections with a diameter of more than 1 million kilometre, small filaments of magnetic knots of a diameter of only 150 km, small filaments of penumbrae of sunspots, almost undetectable small filaments of helmet-streamers (see report of S.R. Habbal in this workshop) and elementary filaments of solar loops were discovered. The dynamo-model could not be used to explain any of these new observations of loop-diameters of this unexpected large range.

Some further inconsequence in the magnetic explanation are as follows.

  • the magnetic field of the solar loops and coronal loops is hundred times weaker than that of the sunspots, but the dynamo should have the same "drive": the differential rotation for the production of all solar filaments,
  • the number of the coronal loops - which appear contemporarily - is about 200, therefore, these visible loops would not fit into the volume of 200 Suns. Their dynamo-made deep sections should be 100 000 times longer , they would not fit even into the volume of a red giant! Moreover, the whole set of millions of solar loops and coronal loops and many other filaments appearing during one solar maximum should be preproduced and stored by the solar dynamo during the solar minimum !

They would not fit into a sphere of a diameter of a lightweek.

  • the coronal loops lie mostly in north-south direction and not in the shown omega-direction (Fig. 2),
  • the Fe XIV-ions of the coronal loops should be the result of a filling of hot plasma of a temperature of 1.8 MK into the "magnetic tube", but this model seems to have no holes in the wall of the "magnetic tube" therefore no "filling" is possible (the shown two holes of the sketch 2 are only for the cut of a short section of the whole length of 30 billion kilometres and not due to the magnetic theory). No model of this "filling" is shown. Sometimes two loops are near to each other and they together elevate a large cloud. How can two closed tubes elevate a cloud between them ? This process would be similar to parallel copper tubes with warm and cold water which would transport 10 litres of water between them for a distance of 1 kilometre in spite of their closed wall !
  • the maximal strength of the solar magnetic field is about 0.4 Tesla. This strong magnetic field should exist in an alleged loop which "produces" two sunspots (see omega in Fig. 2). This strongest solar field logically should produce the highest solar temperature along the whole length of this "magnetic tube", but measurements show that this strongest magnetic field does not produce a maximal heating but a maximal cooling - down to 3800 K- where it crosses the photosphere at a sunspot ! Nobody can understand that similar loops but of a weak magnetic field of about 1 mT should "produce" a high temperature of 20 000 K showing with red light in Fig. 1 ! Moreover, more mysterious is the fact that these weak magnetic tubes should cause there where they cross the photosphere a higher temperature of e.g. 30 000 K and not a cooling ! This higher emission is shown in Fig.1 with white colour. The magnetic model cannot explain why the solar loops and the coronal loops "cause" a "high temperature" of the active area (see e.g. the white spots in Fig. 1 and Fig. 4) around them. The somehow elevated magnetic field of the loops cannot heat its vicinity higher than its own temperature according to the laws of physics!

I have the impression that a 50 years old model - which already was inconsequent in its first publication since it contradicted the laws of thermodynamics - is traditionally still used in our years of the space-based astronomy. Many problems resulted due to this tradition (see report of K.Lang in this workshop). Now it will be shown that the Sun is not similar to a lake in which various "hot serpents" swim from east to west. Do we observe their short and hot sections (as loops), elevated from the water ? Too much and too big serpents are discovered in the last years and their visible sections often fly away and never return. However, no "serpents" were observed by SOHO below the surface. The Sun functions electrically and not magnetically.

3 Electric explanation

Magnetic charges do not exist, only electric charges exist. Therefore, the observed solar macroscopic magnetic fields should be explain via macroscopic electric charges and not via mysterious magnetic machines without any electric circuit. The observed ions (of e.g. Fe XIV) can be explained either via high temperature (of 1.8 MK) or via electric ionisation. But the total absence of an infrared radiation of these ions in the solar- and coronal loops and the well known corona-problem show that only the electric ionisation can be possible. This electric ionisation is well known in the mercury fluorescent lamps. Does the Sun ionise in this cold way ? Yes, it does ionise its own matter simply and without any mystery. But this cold way of ionisation leads to a new astronomy which is based on physics.

Above (HDR star): Without any declaration, all m³ of a HRD-star was taken in the past to be neutral (symbolized by black dots in equal density in the section of a star). No wind could leave this hypothetical star. The round shape of the star - as sketched - was sharply determined gravitationally.

Below (Electric astronomy): Physically, it is clear that the colder sections of a conductor must have an overbalance of electrons. See the unequal density of the black dots (electrons): only five dots are in the core and many dots near the surface. The electrons explode electrostatically in the hydrogen layer, below 13 000 K. The solar wind (arrows) comes automatically into existence and is sustained by the solar temperature-difference of 15 MK.

Fig.3 The basic difference between the non-electric and the electric astronomy
The totally new astronomical theory starts at the fact that the electron has a 1848 times smaller mass than the proton. Proton and electron are exactly equal in their absolute electric charges but they are very unequal in their masses. The negative electricity is bound to a light particle and the positive to much heavier particles. Iron ions have a mass of about 100 000 times that of an electron. This big asymmetry was not taken into account in the astronomy up to 1996 (Fig. 3 ).

The body of a star was taken as electrically neutral in the past. Only exceptions are: the particles of the cosmic rays and the rings of planets. In all other cases, every m³ of a star was considered as containing the same positive and negative charges. More than 200 contradictions (e.g. corona-problem and neutrino-problem) are present in this astronomy (Körtvélyessy 1998).

The reality shows quite another picture which is easy to calculate (Fig.3). All conductors are negatively charged in their colder sections and positively charged in their warmer sections.
Due to the Boltzmann-equation:

1/2 mv²=1,5kT

the protons have everywhere 43 times lower velocity than the electrons and, therefore, the electrons have a higher density in a section of a conductor of a lower temperature (43² = 1848; and "m, v, T" are the mass, velocity and temperature of a particle and "k" is the Boltzmann constant). Therefore, in a HRD-star, the hot core loses electrons and the surface has a negative overbalance due to the surfacing electrons. This is symbolized by the few (five) black dots - i.e. electrons - in the core in Fig.3 (larger picture) and black dots of a high density near the surface. In this electric model, the gravity cannot close the surface of the star against the much stronger electric repulsion.

This asymmetry shows that all HRD-stars are electric generators due to the described thermoelement-effect. The Sun - or any other conductor - has a constant voltage of 2 000 V according to the Boltzmann equation (1) as long as it has a temperature-difference of 15 MK.

The Sun is no mysterious dynamo but the simplest thermoelement-generator of only one conductor. (The Pu-generator of the spacecrafts functions similarly due to a temperature-difference of some hundreds Kelvin but with many conductors.) The Sun's positive pole is in its core, its negative pole is on its surface, its voltage is 2 000 V (1). All solar electromagnetic properties can be understood via this simple and evident model. This new model starts at these separated electric charges and not at mysterious magnetic fields of unknown origin. No dynamo is necessary.
The negative solar wind is the cause of the positive charge of the solar core. Core-fragments can appear as positive charge on the solar surface causing a cold and local ionisation.

Every constant temperature-difference - and therefore also the solar 15 MK - can be a clear thermodynamical source of a power, in this case of an electric power due to the separation of the negative charge from the originally neutral matter in the Sun. These thermoelement-electrons appear in the solar hydrogen layer at about 13 000 K. The electrons in overbalance release an electrostatic explosion here and sweep away matter electrostatically and mechanically from this layer, mostly protons which are actually free by thermal dissociation. This is the solar wind. No magnetic field is necessary. The temperature-difference of 15 MK or the 2 000 eV energy of the particles in the solar core produces the emission of the solar wind. Theoretically, if the main mass of the wind is given by protons, the equation (1) predicts a wind-velocity of about 600 km/s. (The measured value is 750 km/s, the cause of the difference is not known yet. However, already the cause of the solar wind was unknown in the non-electric astronomy.) The resulting positive charge of the core appears on the surface due to supposed internal explosions which have a clearly measured influence on the solar rotation, oscillation and diameter. The surfaced fragments of these explosions appear as positive matter of strong hydrogen alpha emission shown by white spots in Fig. 1. These positive spots have the temperature of the solar surface of 5778 K and no 30 000 K. Their light is cold, the surfaced protons recombine with thermally dissociated electrons. This is the cause of the invisibility in infrared of all solar and coronal loops. But how can these positive - and therefore active - masses produce loops ?

The positive charge of these masses causes in the depth of the Sun only a lower density and no electrostatically explosion, because the carriers of the electrostatic force i.e. the photons have a very long zig-zag path in the plasma. This lower density causes a low buoyancy force, simply hydrostatically. An electrostatic explosion comes, however, into existence when the elevating positive fragment cools down below dissociation-temperature (of about 13 000 K, see Fig.3). Suddenly, the free protons - which remain alone during the recombination - repulse each other very strongly. The photons fly suddenly in straight lines. Due to the continual transport from the depth, the free protons in the highest layers were pushed by the free protons in the lower layers, therefore the highest layer elevates into space, almost horizontally.

But now, every proton in elevation means a positive electric current. Parallel currents attract each other ! Due to this attraction, the charged matter does not explode electrostatically, but forms a filament electrodynamically. The cross section is minimal i.e. a circular cross section is formed.

This process is similar to the formation of stars. Gravity forms spheres which have a minimal volume with circular cross section, but electrically charged matter in motion forms filaments of circular cross section (Klimchuk ). In both cases, the circular cross section is the minimal cross section.

4  The main characteristics of the solar loops can be understood for the very first time

  1. The solar loops can be easily observed in hydrogen alpha light because the surfaced free protons are flying in these loops and they emit this cold light when they recombine with dissociated electrons.
  2. The solar loops are invisible because they are not hot. Therefore, they also do not have an infrared radiation. Important: the solar loops are neither hot nor cold ! They do not have a high temperature of 20 000K. They are not cold because they do not contain particles of a thermal zig-zag motion. "Hot" and "cold" have no meaning for the solar loops. The particles fly parallel to each other in the loop without colliding.
  3. The solar loops start from the solar surface vertically because the deeper layers of the surfaced positive charged matter (white spots in Fig. 1) repulses the upper layers. The elevating positive matter means parallel currents which attract each other. The result is the forming of filaments which vertically start from the center of each active area. This electric process can be demonstrated by electric discharge. In a shown model, the active areas have a diameter of 8 mm and the filaments of a diameter of 3 mm started perpendicularly to the surface and from the centre of the round active areas. All filaments of this model have an exact circular cross section similarly to the cross sections of the solar loops.
  4. The active areas seem to be brighter than the loop in hydrogen alpha light (white areas in Fig. 1) because these areas cause the loops and not the loop ( or the dynamo) causes the active area. For coronal loops, these areas are called "X ray bright points".
  5. The solar loops transports matter. But no matter is flowing in a magnetic tube due to a mysterious and never shown, only supposed hydrostatic pressure difference ! Cause and effect are exactly opposite. The elevating charged matter is repulsed electrostatically by the active area and the flight of this charged matter alone produces the "tube" of a circular cross section. In other words: the loop gives no possibility for matter to be transported but the charged matter in flight produces the loops. Neutral matter cannot form filaments, therefore, non-electric astronomy cannot understand any filaments of the Universe.
  6. Solar loops transport clouds which have often a larger diameter than the loops. This would be impossible in the case of a hypothetical magnetic tube, but it is possible if suddenly more charged matter surfaces in the hydrogen layer. This cloud flies with the normal amount of matter. It is still not clear why the velocity of the cloud and the matter in the loop is the same.
  7. No hydrostatical pressure difference causes the motion in the solar loops, but positively charged and emitted matter looks for a negative solar surface. A hydrostatical pressure difference between the start from the photosphere and the landing on the photosphere is clearly impossible.
  8. Solar loops in a non-vertical, even in a horizontal position, are attracted by negatively charged surface - which is dark in Fig. 1, where the electrons surface (Fig. 3). According to this model, the negative areas are not concentrated, but evenly distributed due to the negative solar wind of -10 Ampere/km². This negative solar surface does not attract but repulse electrons, therefore, it cannot light in any recombination-wavelength, but only thermally. Since all solar filaments are positively charged, they therefore, light only in recombination-wavelengths and they have no own thermal light. The loops are not hot and not cold, the corona problem is solved.
  9. Solar loops are not made magnetically but the motion of the electrically charged matter produces a weak magnetic field. Also the strong magnetic field of the sunspots are made by the sunspots and not by a very strong magnetic tube. Contrary to the sharp loops in Fig. 1, the magnetic field of a bipolar sunspot does not have a filament-form of a constant diameter.
  10. Solar loops need almost no solar volume below the photosphere. They are not made in the depth and not stored there during the minimum. Only the small, positive fragments of the positive core are produced during the minimum. No "magnetic tube" is made in the depth. All filaments are made in the hydrogen layer. And particularly, they are no short and elevated sections of very long "magnetic tubes" as sketched in Fig.2. They exist only above the photosphere and not below it. They do not exist before appearing and do not exist after disappearing. Solar loops do not need a red giant to be produced and stored in its big volume. Also all other solar filaments are not preproduced and not stored but instantly made as stronger charged matter appears in the hydrogen layer. Due to this higher concentration of the positive charge, these coronal loops are larger and emit X ray. The Sun does not need 10 mysterious dynamos for its filaments of various diameters up to millions of kilometres. The Sun does not need a dynamo at all !
  11. Solar loops have missing sections if they cross an electron-poor volume (Fig. 1 on the left above). They are not interrupted, but fly through this volume as contemporary observation in X ray shows. The cause of this process is that strong ions can recombine in electron- poor volume where protons cannot. Fe XIV ions attract the electrons from far away with their 13 times stronger electrostatic attraction but the protons cannot recombine with electrons which are in long distances to the loop. Leaving this electron arm volume, the solar loops light again in hydrogen alpha, especially near the solar surface which always emit electrons thermally.

The Universe contains many filaments. After the discovery of the solar loops, many other filaments up to the lengths of megalightyears and gigalightyears were detected. All these cannot be explained by dynamos because they are too long. Already the filaments of comets with a length of 10 millions of kilomenters cannot be explained by a dynamo of a diameter of maximally 30 km. All these and other filaments e.g. those in supernova remnants, jets of young stars and radioglaxies are made by moving electrically charged matter. All of them are not hot but emit a cold, recombination-light.

5 References:

Habbal, S. 1999 (in this workshop)
Haubold, H.J. 1999 (in this workshop)
Klimchuk, J.A. 19992 Publ. Astr. Soc. Japan 44 L181-L184
Klimchuk, J.A. 1999 (private communication)
Koertvelyessy L. 1998 The Electric Universe EFO Budapest
Lang, K.R. 1995 The Sun.... Springer
Lang, K.R. 1999 (in this workshop)
Matthei, J. 1999 (private communication)
Noens, J. C. 1999 (in this workshop)
Vial, J.-C. 1994 Astronomy Cambridge University Press
Woehl, H. 1997 (private communication)