Physics knows two forces of infinite radius: gravity and electricity. Very probably, the Sun works with both. To emphasize the new discovered electric function, the title of this paper is "The Electric Sun". (The solar gravity was discovered by Newton more than 3 centuries ago.) The solar electric function is necessary to explain the solar wind, the corona, the flares and mass ejections. In short theses:
The solar wind is the result of the asymmetric thermal motion of the electrons in the Sun. A random flight outwards brings the electron in a colder proximity, therefore, the return into the original position is improbable i.e. the electrons drift outwards.
Also the neutrinos from the solar core push the electrons outwards, never inwards.
Moreover, solar photons push the electrons stronger outwards than inwards.
The result is that the solar surface will be basically negative, the solar core positive.
The negative charge continually explodes electrically in the photosphere as solar wind which never stops. Its high velocity of typically 750km/s would need 24million Kelvin to be emitted thermally! But the solar surface is only 6000K hot.
11-yearly, positively charged matter appears on the solar surface (as " footpoints "). Its concentrated charge overbalances the electrons and emits itself into the space as positive filaments, corona, flares, mass ejections . This positive matter contains ions and no mysterious heating produces these ions. The corona is not heated! An emitted filament contains the same e.g.
Fe+9 -ions from begin up to end of the filament. It contains no follow of ions as:
Fe+1 -, Fe+2 -, Fe+3 - .. Fe+9 -ions as if it would be heated!
The high velocity of matter in the filament of e.g. 1500km/s would need 96million Kelvin to be emitted thermally.
The emitted positive and negative matter forms filaments via pinch effect. No mysterious "magnetic tubes" are necessary.
MAGNETIC FORCE OF INFINITE RADIUS?
The electric force has infinite radius. A positive Sun would repulse a proton in an empty space without limit. But does the magnetic force do the same? An infinite long dipole repulses an infinite long dipole infinitely. And how does the Sun (of a dipole of 1.4 million km) function?
Astrophysics of the last century preferred magnetic forces. The magnetic force originates by dipoles which attract or repulse other magnetic dipoles. But the magnetic force is unable to move a cloud in a long way in the empty space even if this cloud is a dipole. In free space, one dipole
another dipole far away because the non-fixed dipole (the cloud) will rotate by 180° in a certain distance and be attracted to the fixed dipole. However, an alleged dipole of a solar loop is often ejected, but never rotated and attracted (see the script: The Fifth State of Matter). Therefore the loop can be ejected only electrically.
other dipole from fare away, because the mutual attractions and repulsions between the poles are the same. Therefore, only an electrically charged celestial body can repulse a filament of positive ions for millions of kilometres or even for lightyears (e.g. in a jet). The magnetic force has only finite radius.
The Sun emits particles up to 99.99% light velocity, therefore, all explanations via moving magnetic fields or heat are impossible. (In the last years such high velocity was named: non-thermal velocity.) We can see that
the numerous solar magnetic fields can only be the results of the solar electric charge. Moreover, the electric cause of these magnetic fields was not clear in astrophysics. These magnetic fields cannot be the cause of any outwards motion of solar matter. Only the electric force remains to explain the ejection and the filament-form of the solar matter like the solar wind, coronal mass ejections and flares.
THE HUNTED MAGNETIC SOLAR DYNAMO
Only the solar gravity was completely understood by the astrophysics of the last centuries (since Newton , since 1666). A fine adjustment was given by relativity in the first decades of the last century. However astrophysics of the last century used the magnetic force without success in hundreds of models. Some of them are as follows:
All these and many other observations persistently remained unexplained. Many solar processes were sophistically and symbolically explained by magnetic fields of mysterious origin. Prof. K. R. Lang hoped in1995 that SOHO will find the solar dynamo:
".one of the principal motivations for helioseismological studies has been a desire to constrain theories for the solar dynamo that produces the magnetic cycle of the solar activity."
Lang wrote disappointed in 1996 when SOHO did not find the solar dynamo:
"Our new views.have raised many questions. They include. a crisis in the dynamo theory.the unknown mechanisms that heat the million degree corona and accelerate the solar wind."
However, all these problems probably have a common cause: the Sun was seen as an electrically neutral body. It is high time to test whether the Sun has an important electric function, too. This electric function even seems to have a strong influence on our climate and, therefore, it has an enormous importance for mankind.
A thought experiment should show this:
A THOUGHT SOLAR EXPERIMENT
What happens if a small body falls into the Sun? Such a body could be a small star e.g. a "white dwarf". These can have more mass than the Sun (by 40%). Let us think that this small star has the mass equal to that of the Sun. The result can be that the solar core will have in its centre a hard and heavy component, much denser than the very dense solar core.
Nobody thinks that the white dwarf - as big as the Earth - could not attract all planets through the 700000km thick solar body which has its own big mass. It is quite clear, that the double of the new solar mass would produce a double of attraction by the higher gravity and our Earth would approach the new Sun in a spiral as long as its centrifugal force will not be double than now. (In the reality, the Sun could not survive the collision with a white dwarf. Fortunately it is only a thought experiment.)
However, very probably, a white dwarf is positively charged because it has a strong magnetic field up to 1000 Tesla - which could be the result of the quickly rotated electric charge. Is the positive charge of this thought central white dwarf detectable at Earth similar to the thought double strength of gravity in the case above? Would the electrons of the solar wind attracted by this positive charge which is in the centre of the Sun? The probable answer is: no, a positive charge in the depth of the Sun could not be detected at Earth. The solar plasma is not transparent for photons which are the carriers of the positive electric field. This field starts at the positive surface of the white dwarf. Many observations show that gravity can pervade plasma but the electric force cannot pervade plasma . One of these observations is the existence of the Sun as we see in the following simple calculation.
The Sun has the mass of 2 x 1033 gram. One of its protons attracts another proton via mutual gravity. Let us see the two halves of the Sun. The gravity of all protons of the one half of the Sun attracts all protons in the other half of the Sun. But all protons in excess (not neutralized by an electron) in one solar half repulse all protons in excess in the another half electrically. The repulsion is in each case 1036 times larger than the attraction. That means that already 0.001 gram of protons (in excess) in both solar halves has the same electric repulsion as 1033 gram protons via gravity-attraction.
Already 0.01gram of protons in excess would explode the Sun if the electrostatic repulsion could pervade the solar plasma! But the Sun is still there. Either, the Sun is totally balanced in its electric charges. It should have neither positive nor negative overbalance even not in milligram-range for the positive charge or microgram-range in electrons. The other possibility is that it is not sensitive if its electric charges are unbalanced. But the Sun cannot be balanced! Already before it was born, the mother-cloud was bombarded by the cosmic rays giving positive charge to it. Also young stars in the proximity emitted X-rays which ionized hydrogen and helium of the mother cloud i.e. many electrons could not return after their emission by these photons. However, positive masses of billion tons are emitted in coronal mass ejections daily and not milligrams.
GRAVITY AND ELECTRICITY
There are many differences between the two forces of infinite radius. The problems of the astrophysics of the last century have their origin in the fact that these differences were neglected. Moreover, the electric force of infinite radius was looked at as having short radius acting only in atoms. Positively charged atoms existed, but positively charged stars should not exist. Following table shows the two forces of infinite radius.
|Proportional to "charges"?||
|Law of distance:||
|Can act in empty space?||
|Can escape from black hole?||Yes||no|
|Secondary force||No||yes (magnetic force)|
|Velocity < 300 000 km/s?||No||yes|
|Can pervade plasma?||Yes||no (21th century)|
|Number of "charges"?||one||two (+ and -)|
|Zero force of a body?||impossible||possible (if neutral)|
|Force typically produces:||stars - galaxies||filaments, jets|
|Force typically forms:||Ellipsoid||cylinder|
|Color of these bodies:||infrared up to blue||X- and gamma-ray|
|Produced bodies are in||concentration||expansion|
|State of matter of bodies:||
|( solid , fluid, gas, plasma)||( filament )|
|Force between 2 protons:||1 unit||10 36 units|
|( very weak attraction)||( very strong rep.)|
|Force is important in atom:||no||yes|
|Space is deformed by it:||yes||no|
As we see the two forces of infinite radius are in their many characteristics different. Therefore, it is possible that the Sun exactly shows us the mass of its core but keeps secret the positive charge of its core.
Lang, K.R. (1995) The Sun. Springer p.73
Lang, K.R. (1996) Unsolved mysteries of the Sun. S&T p.39
Körtvélyessy, L. (1998) The Electric Universe EFO Budapest 704p